Determinants of Health
The 1998 Acheson Report Independent
Inquiry into Inequalities in Health report concluded that: "the
weight of scientific evidence supports a socio-economic explanation of
health inequalities. This traces the roots of ill health to such determinants
as income, education and employment as well as material environment and
Dahlgren and Whitehead's model (below) highlights some of the main factors
determining the health of our regional and local populations.
Age, sex and genetic make-up undoubtedly influence people's health potential,
but are fixed. Other factors in the surrounding layers of the model can
potentially be modified to achieve a positive impact on population health:
lifestyle factors such as smoking habits, diet and physical activity
have the potential to promote or damage health;
with friends, relatives and mutual support within a community can sustain
influences on health include living and working conditions, food supplies,
access to essential goods and services, and the overall economic, cultural
and environmental conditions prevalent in society as a whole.
and local comparative data are available which relate to some of the determinants
of health described above. These data are described in detail in the EMPHO
Health Indicators 2003". The website includes downloadable data
for the East Midlands local authorities including the North Notts districts.
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Indices of Deprivation 2000
Recognition that many of the key determinants of health are interdependent
has stimulated the development of indices of multiple deprivation such
as the Jarman Underprivileged Area Score, the Townsend Material Deprivation
Score and the Indices of Multiple Deprivation 2000 (IMD2000).
IMD2000 is the most widely used current measure of small area deprivation.
Further details are available at www.odpm.gov.uk.
It replaces indexes based on the 1991 Census such as the Townsend and
Scores in the Indices of Deprivation 2000 (ID 2000) are derived from 33
ward level indicators in the following six 'domains' of deprivation:
Health Deprivation and Disability
Education, Skills and Training Deprivation
Geographical Access to Services
six ward level Domain Indices are combined to make the ward level Index
of Multiple Deprivation 2000 (IMD 2000). he IMD 2000 was constructed by
combining the six transformed domain scores, using the following weights:
Health Deprivation and Disability (15%)
Education, Skills and Training (15%)
Geographical Access to Services (10%)
In contrast to other
deprivation indices based on 1991 Census data, most of the indicators
used in the IMD2000 can be updated regularly. Multiple data sources are
- DSS, ONS, DfEE,
ES, UCAS, LA, Post Office Counters, Data Consultancy Ltd., NHS, BMA,
English House Condition Survey, Residata.
There are 354 local
authorities in England and each can be given a score (average ward score)
and a rank on the index of multiple deprivation. The lower the rank, the
more deprived the district (1 would be most deprived, 354 the least deprived).
Scores and ranks for the North Notts Local Authorities are provided below.
Index of Multiple
Deprivation scores for PCTs were included in a recent PCT data set produced
by Eastern Region PHO on behalf of all PHOs. Values for North Notts PCTs
are provided below.
A related indicator
is the population within a given local authority area which live in wards
that rank among the most deprived 10% of wards in the country. Values
for North Notts local authorities are provided below.
Proposals for updating
IMD2000 are at www.neighbourhood.gov.uk/indices.asp.
Ward level scores for the six IMD2000 domains of deprivation for the North
Notts PCTs are provided below.
Summary measures for
local authorities and NHS administrative areas are also available. the
District level presentations of the IMD2000 are provided below.
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Within IMD2000 (see
above) there is a separate income deprivation index. Scores are derived
from counts of people in families in receipt of means tested benefits.
Scores for local authorities are counts of individuals experiencing income
deprivation, i.e. they give an indication of the absolute rather than
the relative level of income deprivation.
Scores for the income
deprivation index for North Notts local authorities are provided below.
ID2000 also includes a child poverty index derived from the proportion
of children under 16 living in means tested benefit reliant families.
Scores are available at ward level. Scores at local authority level are
not available, although scores for PCTs were computed as part of the recent
PCT data set produced by Eastern Region PHO on behalf of all PHOs. Values
for North Notts PCTs are provided below.
Ward level child poverty
index scores for the North Notts PCTs are provided below.
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Data Sources for other determinants indicators
Some key data sources for other health determinants are provided through
the links below.
Income and Poverty, Employment and Education, Crime:
1. ONS "Neighbourhood Statistics" website: www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk
2. East Midlands Observatory website: www.eastmidlandsobservatory.org.uk/emknowledge.asp
3. Annual Local Labour Force Surveys website: www.statistics.gov.uk/llfs/
4. NOMIS website (official labour market statistics) www.nomisweb.co.uk
5. "Crime in England and Wales" series (combines the reporting
of police recorded crime and the British Crime Survey (BCS) results: www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/crimeew0203.html
As mentioned previously,
a more comprehensive presentation of determinants of health is provided
Midlands Public Health Observatory Determinants of Health